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Maintaining a stable and high rail neutral temperature is critical for buckling prevention. Neutral or force-free temperature of CWR is usually different from initial installation or anchoring temperature. This difference is attributed to several factors, including rail longitudinal movement, track lateral shift/radial breathing in curves, track vertical settlement, and maintenance activities. Rail longitudinal movement (creep) is due to train braking and traction forces, or to differential thermal forces (sun and shade). Track lateral shift can be caused by excessive truck hunting, and by lateral forces generated by curving or by lateral misalignments. Compressive and tensile forces can cause radial breathing of curves especially in weak ballast conditions. Vertical differential settlement of rails can occur on new or recently surfaced track, or in areas of weak subgrade conditions. Maintenance operations influencing neutral temperature changes include: lifting, lining, and tamping, replacing broken rail, destressing, and installing CWR in cold weather. Research to date has shown that typical CWR rail installation (stress-free) temperatures of 100F can reduce in service to 50 - 60F due to these effects. 153554b96e


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