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An Economic History Of The United States: Connecting The Present With The Past Book Pdf

This pioneering textbook takes a thematic approach to the subject, resulting in a comprehensive understanding of historic economic issues in the United States. Siegler takes a thematic approach, and provides both the theoretical foundations and historical background needed to gain an in-depth understanding of the subject. Every chapter examines a specific topic, and the chapters are linked to each other to provide an overall view. The chronological approach is represented with a useful timeline as an appendix to show where the specific topics fit in the chronology. Chapter topics include: long-run causes of economic growth; economic history of income and wealth inequality; slavery, segregation, and discrimination; immigration and immigration policies; and an economic history of recessions and depressions. This book is ideally suited as a primary text for undergraduate courses in US economic history, as well as suitable courses on history degree programmes.

An Economic History of the United States: Connecting the Present with the Past book pdf

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Knowing how to read, reconstruct and interpret the past allows us to answer questions such as: How do we learn about the past? How can we evaluate the usefulness and degree of reliability of different historical sources? What are the roots of our social, political and economic systems? What are our personal roots and how can they be viewed as part of human history? Why is the past important to us today? How has the world changed and how might it change in future? How do perspectives about the past differ, and to what extent do these differences inform contemporary ideas and actions?

Through a more formal study of history, students in the middle grades continue to expand their understanding of the past and are increasingly able to apply the research methods associated with historical inquiry. They develop a deeper understanding and appreciation for differences in perspectives on historical events and developments, recognizing that interpretations are influenced by individual experiences, sources selected, societal values, and cultural traditions. They are increasingly able to use multiple sources to build interpretations of past events and eras. High school students use historical methods of inquiry to engage in the examination of more sophisticated sources. They develop the skills needed to locate and analyze multiple sources, and to evaluate the historical accounts made by others. They build and defend interpretations that reconstruct the past, and draw on their knowledge of history to make informed choices and decisions in the present.

This theme appears in units or courses dealing with history, geography, economics, and civics and government. It draws upon several scholarly fields from the natural and physical sciences, social sciences, and the humanities for specific examples of issues as well as the knowledge base for considering responses to the societal issues related to science and technology.

This theme typically appears in units or courses dealing with geography, culture, economics, history, political science, government, and technology but may also draw upon the natural and physical sciences and the humanities, including literature, the arts, and languages. Through exposure to various media and first-hand experiences, young learners become aware of how things that happen in one part of the world impact other parts of the world. Within this context, students in early grades examine and explore various types of global connections as well as basic issues and concerns. They develop responsive action plans, such as becoming e-pals with a class in another part of the world. In the middle years, learners can initiate analyses of the consequences of interactions among states, nations, and world regions as they respond to global events and changes. At the high school level, students are able to think systematically about personal, national, and global decisions, and to analyze policies and actions, and their consequences. They also develop skills in addressing and evaluating critical issues such as peace, conflict, poverty, disease, human rights, trade, and global ecology.

The interwar period in the United States, and in the rest of the world, is a most interesting era. The decade of the 1930s marks the most severe depression in our history and ushered in sweeping changes in the role of government. Economists and historians have rightly given much attention to that decade. However, with all of this concern about the growing and developing role of government in economic activity in the 1930s, the decade of the 1920s often tends to get overlooked. This is unfortunate because the 1920s are a period of vigorous, vital economic growth. It marks the first truly modern decade and dramatic economic developments are found in those years. There is a rapid adoption of the automobile to the detriment of passenger rail travel. Though suburbs had been growing since the late nineteenth century their growth had been tied to rail or trolley access and this was limited to the largest cities. The flexibility of car access changed this and the growth of suburbs began to accelerate. The demands of trucks and cars led to a rapid growth in the construction of all-weather surfaced roads to facilitate their movement. The rapidly expanding electric utility networks led to new consumer appliances and new types of lighting and heating for homes and businesses. The introduction of the radio, radio stations, and commercial radio networks began to break up rural isolation, as did the expansion of local and long-distance telephone communications. Recreational activities such as traveling, going to movies, and professional sports became major businesses. The period saw major innovations in business organization and manufacturing technology. The Federal Reserve System first tested its powers and the United States moved to a dominant position in international trade and global business. These things make the 1920s a period of considerable importance independent of what happened in the 1930s.

Economic inclusion efforts should continue to focus on connecting consumers with safe and affordable accounts at a variety of bankable moments, for example, with receipt of new employment income, tax refunds, and government benefits and transfers. While initiatives to bank consumers at opportune moments have existed for some time (e.g., Bank On, Volunteer Income Tax Assistance site banking efforts), more options are available today than in the past to connect consumers with safe and affordable bank accounts. As of September 2022, over 250 banks and credit unions offer an account that meets Bank On National Account Standards. In addition, mobile and online account opening options are more accessible. Restrictions on in-person activities during the pandemic led many banks to enhance their digital account opening technologies to make it easier and quicker for consumers to open accounts remotely through online and mobile banking. At the same time, consumer comfort and familiarity with financial technology increased as many consumers used online and mobile methods for shopping or handling their finances. Public awareness campaigns timed with bankable moments highlighting account opening options could be helpful for bringing consumers into banking.

In addition to expanding access to banking, maintaining sustainable banking relations is a key economic inclusion consideration. The pandemic tested the sustainability of banking relationships when labor market disruptions reduced or curtailed many household income streams. In 2021, about one in five recently unbanked households (21.1 percent) reported that losing or quitting a job, being furloughed, having reduced hours, or having a significant loss of income contributed to closing a bank account in the prior 15 months. As sizeable as this share is, it is much lower than results reported in a past FDIC survey. Although not directly comparable, in 2013, one-third (33.9 percent) of recently unbanked households experienced a significant income loss or a job loss that they said contributed to the household becoming unbanked. Government aid and financial system flexibilities during the pandemic likely played a role in mitigating consumer financial distress, particularly in helping consumers meet their credit obligations. But it would be beneficial to identify lessons learned regarding communication strategies, staff training, or bank policies that were particularly effective in helping consumers and financial institutions navigate financial disruptions. For example, at the start of the pandemic, regulators encouraged financial institutions to work with consumers, especially LMI consumers, and to consider measures to reduce the financial impact of the pandemic, such as waiving early withdrawal penalties for time deposits or ATM fees. It is important to explore whether these or other efforts were effective and could be continued to help LMI consumers cope with short-term financial shocks without becoming unbanked. 076b4e4f54


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